タグ : 慰安婦像
THE GLOBAL ALLIANCE FOR HISTORICAL TRUTH (GAHT) www.gahtjp.org
Advertisement●Focusing historical issue from the overseas point of view chapter 10 The [Comfort Women] – A Tool of Japan Bashing; There Seems to be no Irreversible Agreement
【2018/5/26・English Edition・25面】 At the beginning of this year,
President Moon Jue-In declared that the agreement which was concluded
on the issue of “Comfort Women” irreversibly in December 2015 does not
fully solve this controversial issue, although the Japanese government
again paid 100 million dollars for the redemption to former “Comfort
の証人として国連の人権問題委員会の公聴会やアメリカ各地の集会 で訴えまわっているお婆さんたちとまさに同年で、 昭和の激動時代を生きてきた昭和史の生き証人である。元「 慰安婦」のおばあさん達が、 アメリカ各地で全く時系列に合わない、 当時の日朝両国の社会的背景とも全く異なっている「証言」 に唖然としている。そして、彼女たちを国際社会の場で、 このような証言をさせている国の品位を問いたい。
マッカーサー元帥が率いる連合軍に占領され、 連合軍総司令部の指導のもと、 今までの封建的日本社会の改革が行われた。 中でも連合軍総司令部は女性の社会的地位の向上に熱心であった。 女性の参政権を認め、男性オンリーだった国立・ 私立大学の門戸を女性にも開放した。 親の承諾がなくても自分で選んだ男性と結婚ができる結婚の自由、 そして公娼制度の廃止等であった。
日本もそして日本の統治下の朝鮮でも公娼制度が認められていたの である。 当時は「貧乏人の子沢山」と言われた通り、 貧困家庭には子供が多かった。そして、 小学校を卒業すると男の子も女の子も、 工場や商店に年季奉公に出された。
そして娼妓として売られた者も多かった。 当時の日本でも朝鮮でも、電柱に「娼妓募集」や「 カフェー女給募集」の広告が堂々と張られてあったのである。( 私が子供の時に電柱の「娼妓募集」の広告を見て、「 娼妓ってなーに」と母に聞いたことがあった。母は慌てた声で「 子供には関係のない、知らなくてもいいことよ」と言った。) 強制連行などしなくても、 貧家に生まれた女性が親兄弟の犠牲になって応募したのである。 こういう当時の社会背景に全く無知な韓国人の戦後生まれの世代が 、アメリカやカナダで「 韓国人女性が強制連行されて日本軍の性奴隷にされた」 と言いまわっているのは、明らかに日本叩きに「慰安婦」 を利用しているのである。 私から見れば実に恥知らずの連中と呆れている。そして日本でも、 大学の名誉教授までが、 韓国の不当な言いがかりを認めているのには、 本当に情けないと思っている。この連中の歴史的無知に対して、 まだ生存している者が正しいことを伝えなければ、 日本は賠償金を取られ続けられ、世界各地に「慰安婦像」 と称する少女像を建てられるのではないかと大いに危惧している。
との間で両国の関係正常化に関する「 日本国と大韓民国との間の基本関係に関する条約」が調印された。 １９５１年にサンフランシスコ講和条約で、 日本と朝鮮の関係処理は両国の合意にゆだねられることになった。 １９５２年２月に第一次会談が開かれ、 65年の妥結にいたるまで、実に15年ものあいだ、 中断と再会を繰り返した。１９６５年６月に、日本（ 佐藤栄作総理）と韓国（朴正熙大統領）の間で調印された。
同条約は15年にわたる交渉の末に調印されたが、 調印と批准には両国で反対運動が起きた。 両国間の問題点は報償金であったが、交渉の末、総額８億ドル（ 無償３億ドル、政府借款２億ドル、民間借款３憶ドル） の援助資金と引き換えに、韓国側は請求権を放棄した。
日本政府は韓国側からの徴用者名簿等の資料提出を条件に個別補償 を行うことを提案したが、 韓国政府は個人への補償は韓国政府が行なうということで、 日本政府は「慰安婦」 への補償も当然含まれていると解釈したのである。 日本が統治時代に朝鮮半島に持っていた53億ドルの個人資産や国 有資産に対する最終請求権を放棄した。 かくて日韓基本条約によって、両国間の財産、 請求権の一切の完全かつ最終的な解決が確認されたのである。 条約は、英語、日本語、韓国語で２部づつ作成され、 両国政府で保管されている。
日本政府は村山政権のときに10億８０００万円支払い河野官房長 官が謝罪文を送った。そして、 ２０１５年の日韓両国の話し合いでさらに10億円を日本が支払っ て、この問題は「不可逆的に解決した」と日韓両国が署名した。 それでも、アメリカで「慰安婦」 像を建てろと言いまわっている韓国人の「恥知らず」には、 全く呆れている。
なでしこアクション Japanese Women for Justice and Peace
Comfort Women Issue: Fake News and the Facts
Many people in the world believe comfort women as the following:
“During WW2, atrocious Japanese military personnel abducted hundreds of thousands of girls, and forced them into sexual servitude. They were called comfort women. Most of them were tortured, killed and died. It was an act of sexual human trafficking and a war crime committed by the Japanese military.”
What makes people believe this? One of the reasons is media coverage.
The word “comfort women” is not a common word in English. So everytime the word “comfort women” appears in a news article, it is always followed by an explanation. Let’s see how newspapers and news agencies explained the word “comfort women” in articles published this year:
• The Washington Post (January 31)
“Historians say as many as 200,000 women in occupied countries were coerced by the Japanese Imperial Army to work as sex slaves, euphemistically known as “comfort women.”
• The Wall Street Journal (January 9)
“[Comfort women were] women forced into sexual service for Japanese soldiers.”
• The New York Times (January 12)
“[Comfort women were] women forced into sexual slavery for the Japanese military during World War II.”
• Reuters (January 8)
“Comfort women”, a euphemism for girls and women forced to work in Japan’s wartime brothels… as many as 200,000 Korean women were forced to work in the brothels.”
• Deutsche Welle, Germany (January 12)
“[Comfort women were] women who were forced to work in frontline brothels for the Japanese military from the start of the occupation of the Korean Peninsula in 1910 until the end of the war in 1945.”
• The Straits Times, Singapore (January 12)
“Between 80,000 and 200,000 women, mostly from the Korean Peninsula but also from China, Taiwan and South-east Asia, had been recruited to provide sex to the Japanese Imperial Army during World War II.”
• Asahi Shimbun, English version (January 9)
“…the former comfort women, who were forced to provide sex to Japanese soldiers before and during World War II. Many of them came from the Korean Peninsula.”
• The Japan Times (January 10)
“[Comfort women were] women forced to work in Japanese wartime military brothels”
Which article do you think is correct?
The answer is none. For the correct definition of “comfort women”, please read the excerpt from “What were the comfort women?” by Ph.D. Koichi Mera in chapter 2 of the January 27th edition.
The problem is that all the reporters and journalists copy and paste the defiition of “comfort women” from past articles, without doing their own research.
Some reporters are Japanese. They must be able to read Japanese materials, but never seem to research on their own, or may intentionally write Japan as the villain.
What are common in the articles above are the words “enforcement”, “sex slaves” and “Japanese atrocities against women.” Because all media writes based on these images, the fabricated narrative of “comfort women” penetrates and disseminates more and more.
This situation is caused because, for many years , the Japanese government did not refute the fabrications with the facts, but instead made political compromises and apologized with ambiguous expressions. The Japanese government is changing now, but it is still not enough. We must send more information overseas.
We should not just complain about this situation, but do something positive as a civil group. So, we have published the pocket booklet entitled “What is “Comfort Women”? BASIC FACTS.” We have made both English and Japanese versions.
People usually do not care about the comfort women issue, especially those who are not Japanese. They do not read thick, profound books either. So, we made this booklet very easy to read for beginners who are new to the comfort women issue and would like to learn about it. The content is a simple Q&A style with lots of figures and photos. It is postcard size, and is 32-pages in full color. If you would like a copy, please visit our “Nadeshiko Action” website for more details.
We really hope that you will read and use this booklet, and also hope that many people will understand the comfort women issue, instead of being misled by fake news.
(Yumiko Yamamoto is the president of the grass roots civil group “Nadesiko Action”, also known as “Japanese Women for Justice and Peace”.)
NADESIKO ACTION Japanese Women for Justice and Peace http://nadesiko-action.org
なでしこアクション Japanese Women for Justice and Peace http://nadesiko-action.org
●Focusing on historical issues from the overseas point of view in 5 chapters
Comfort Women Statue in San Francisco:
Influence on School Education and Children
Hello, everyone! I am Yumiko Yamamoto, president of the grassroots civil group “Nadesiko Action,” also referred to as “Japanese Women for Justice and Peace.” Our goal is to not pass on the negative legacy of the comfort women issue, which fabricates the historical narrative that “comfort women were sex slaves” to the next generation.
Last year, a comfort women statue was erected in San Francisco. Plans for the statue started in July 2015 when a resolution, “Urging the Establishment of a Memorial for ‘Comfort Women’” was first proposed at the Board of San Francisco. Since then, for more than two years, together with Japanese and Japanese American women in San Francisco, our struggle and actions against the comfort women statue had begun. We organized several petition and signature gathering campaigns and opposition email campaigns. These women went to the committee and board meetings to speak many times and delivered materials and documents to the board of supervisors and staff. We tried everything we could very diligently and patiently. At the very last board meeting of last November, when San Francisco finally accepted the comfort women statue, we were told to wait for six hours before public comments could be made, but still we spoke against the statue. Despite our tremendous effort, it was very disappointing that the Consulate-General of Japan in San Francisco gave us no support.
Korean American civil groups have erected comfort women monuments and statues in the United States. However, in San Francisco, the Chinese American civil group called the “Comfort Women Justice Coalition” was the organizer. Two Chinese American women are co-chairs. Both are retired judges of the California high court, and one of them was a founder of “The Rape of Nanking Redress Coalition” in 1998. In addition, the Consulate General of the People’s Republic of China in San Francisco supported them.
Naturally, a Korean American group cooperated with the coalition. The group invited a self-proclaimed former comfort woman to the board meetings and ceremonies, attracting big media attention. This elderly Korean woman is the one who hugged President Trump at the banquet on his visit to the Republic of Korea in November last year. She is akin to a famous spokesperson of the comfort women support group “Chong Dae Hyup,” which is known as a pro-North Korean group.
I have watched the San Francisco board of supervisors in recent years, and I felt their very strong discrimination against Japanese and Japanese Americans who opposed the comfort women statue. The board is an official and public place. They must listen to the pros and cons with fairness. But, a chairman once interrupted an opposition speaker and called him “a history denier.” One supervisor said to the people who spoke against the comfort women statue, “Shame on you!” four times. Later he received a letter of protest, but he replied with “Shame on you!” again. Some people say that San Francisco is now one of the autonomous regions of China. As far as I have seen with the San Francisco board, I totally agree with this opinion.
Now, what we must concern ourselves with most is the influence on the children. The comfort women statue in San Francisco is placed in a public park in town. On a big signboard, explanations of the statue are inscribed in five languages: English, Korean, Chinese, Filipino and Japanese. They read, “Comfort women who were sexually enslaved by the Japanese Imperial Armed Forces” and, “Most of these women died during their wartime captivity.” This park will likely be one of many field trip destinations for schools.
In California, the Board of Education decided to include “Comfort women as institutionalized sexual slavery” in the high school curriculum since last year. There are an estimated 6.2 million students in California. Their backgrounds are multicultural and multinational. They will be educated with this false notion of “comfort women” for years. We must concern ourselves with its terrible influence on future decades.
We must not leave fabricated history to our children. Let me introduce the “Nadesiko Action” approach to this in the next chapter.
Yumiko Yamamoto, president of the grassroots civil group “Nadesiko Action,”also known as “Japanese Women for Justice and Peace”.
NADESIKO ACTION Japanese Women for Justice and Peace http://nadesiko-action.org
●Focusing historical issue from the overseas point of view chapter 4
A comfort women memorial to be erected in Fort Lee
Fort Lee, a town of 37,000 in Bergen County, NJ sits on the Hudson River and offers a magnificent view of Manhattan. It has 2,100 Japanese residents, the largest concentration of Japanese in New Jersey. Its easy access to Manhattan is convenient for many Japanese commuters. While Japanese population declined slightly, the population of Korean- Americans has risen to roughly 30% of Fort Lee residents. Many of them work as retailers, medical doctors, police officers, municipal workers and car dealers. The Korean population of the town adjoining Fort Lee, Palisade’s Park, is almost 65 %. Many official notices and letters from public schools, medical offices are written in both English and Korean. As the number of Koreans has increased in these boroughs, Korean political influence has also grown. Today, 2 of the 6 Fort Lee councilmen are Korean-Americans. In 2013, the “comfort women” issue entered local politics for the first time. Since then, there have been three proposals to build a “comfort women” monument in Fort Lee, but all failed because some Koreans feared ethnic divisiveness.
In June 2016, YCFL,( The Youth Council of Fort Lee) a group of high school activists proposed erecting a “comfort women” memorial. Local newspapers explained that YCFL was organized after students saw the film, ”Spirits’ Homecoming.” The group held a contest for the design of the monument and poem to be inscribed on it. The final design of the memorial shows a poem by a Korean high school girl. Although she makes no mention of the Japanese military, she describes a young Korean girl’s suffering sexual assaults during the War. The poem clearly points its finger at Japan.
When I attended the September 7th. 2017 hearing of the Fort Lee Borough council, YCFL insisted that it was not criticizing Japan, but only commemorating “comfort women” survivors. However, in an interview by “Record China”, the same youngsters stated that “Japanese students are studying incorrect history at school. Therefore, we need to teach them the truth about history by building“comfort women” memorials.”
Because Himawari Japan believes that the proposed memorial will create irreparable division between the Korean and Japanese communities, we protested the proposal to Mayor Sokolich and the Borough council. We presented a petition from 5,922 people opposing the monument, pointed out that the monument will encourage bullying of Japanese students in the schools, and we distributed pamphlets in English containing all our objections.
One of our biggest obstacles has been the Japanese government’s vacillation over the past twenty years. Despite the fact that Japan had paid South Korea $800,000,000, the equivalent of 3 years of Korea’s national budget, under a 1965 treaty covering all losses suffered by Korea during the War, Korea never stopped demanding more apologies and money. Under the Treaty, all Koreans including “comfort women” should have been compensated from the money already paid to South Korea. However, the Japanese government’s indecisive response may seem somewhat incomprehensible to foreigners. It reflects the Japanese desire for harmony by ending disputes even if the alleged wrongs have been paid. Fort Lee Mayor Sokolich explained, “ I think the blame lies upon Japan because the Japanese government paid compensation to South Korea. Why do you pay if you don’t admit you were wrong?” Despite our explanations, on December 14th. 2017, the Borough council voted unanimously in favor of the memorial.
This is just the beginning of our fight against anti-Japanese propaganda. Despite the odds against us, we are determined to fight to recover the pride and honor of our country. Modern Japan, unlike our neighbors, is the sole constitutional democracy in East Asia. It has, in its constitution, surrendered the right to wage war. Instead, Japan is dedicated to world peace and helping other countries. Japan is the world’s fourth largest donor of foreign aid. As of 2012, eighty-eight nations all over the world received Japanese help, including the People’s Republic of China. For decades, Japan has helped South Korea in economic and social development and assists developing countries in Asia, Africa, Central and South America and the Middle East.
The face of modern Japan, over 70 years after the War, is that of a peaceful, productive, and helpful neighbor. This is the truth that South Korea chooses to ignore. In reality, the “ comfort women” issue has nothing to do with “healing” war victims. Its true aim is to damage the image of Japan and hurt Japanese people wherever they may reside.
President Himawari JAPAN
●Focusing on historical issues from the overseas point of view chapter 3
Himawari Japan’s role in the Comfort Women issue
One day, a Japanese girl came home from school very upset and said to her mother,” Mom, I’m ashamed of being Japanese! “ Why did she have to make such a terrible remark to her mother? Earlier that day, a Korean classmate had criticized Japan to her face in front of her class, saying that “Japanese soldiers had kidnapped more than two hundred thousand Korean women, mostly young girls only twelve or thirteen years old, for sexual slavery and eventual massacre.”
This is one of the examples of school bullying and bias that young Japanese nationals face today in New Jersey and New York. The problems of anti-Japanese bias continues to grow. Much of this stems from the growing presence of comfort women monuments in neighborhood parks and from public school history miseducation about Japan. One of the largest history book publishers, McGraw-Hill, includes many anti-Japanese descriptions in its modern world history books. These texts state that the Japanese Army abducted girls between 14 and 20 years of age and forced them to serve in Army brothels called “Comfort Stations” or “Entertainment Centers.” When the Army provided soldiers with these women, it referred to them as “the gift from the Emperor.” The books also claim that most of the girls were Koreans or Chinese. Each had to service 20 to 30 men a day. If anyone tried to escape or contracted a sexually transmitted disease, she would be executed. As the end of war approached, to hide their crimes, the soldiers massacred many comfort women. However, we believe these stories are untrue and were created as anti-Japanese propaganda. When these stories are relayed by American history teachers, sometimes Chinese and Korean students become angry. Japanese mothers have reported that their children have been called rapists and terrorists, and even spat upon. Upon hearing of the mistakes that McGraw-Hill had made in its books, a group of nineteen Japanese scholars, in March 2015, sent a statement to the publisher requesting correction of these factual errors. They presented the publisher with correct information supported by numerous government records, including American post-war military investigative reports. So far, there has been no response.
Another example of anti-Japanese education occurred in New York and New Jersey where school districts presented two extremely anti-Japanese movies, “The Cove” and “Unbroken”, to their high school students on several occasions. When the teachers asked the audience its opinion about what they saw, all the Japanese students lowered their heads and said nothing.
One World War II veteran visited schools in New Jersey and New York in 2015 and 2016 to speak about his first-hand experiences as a war prisoner of Japan. He told elementary school children that he has seen a Japanese soldier stab a baby with a bayonet and began eating it in front of everybody. Imagine Japanese youngsters having to listen to this with their American classmates! This is psychological abuse for Japanese children. Why do teachers have to emphasize the alleged horrors of a war that ended more than 70 years ago? What is the point of propagandizing in American schools that Japan is the eternal enemy of decency in the world?
Showing cruel movies only results in creating conflicts among innocent children. When I found out about these incidents, I was so humiliated and outraged that I had to do something. Coincidentally, I had the opportunity to meet Professor Shiro Takahashi of Meisei University who was visiting America to do research about “bullying issues”stemming from historical disputes in the United States. This meeting prompted me to begin organizing in June 2016 our “Himawari Japan” group. Our members are Japanese women who live in New York and New Jersey.
Our goal is helping troubled Japanese people who live in America. We want to inform both Japanese and Americans about the truth of world history, Japan’s role in the modern world, and problems miseducation inflicts on our children in America. We want Japanese children to live with pride.
Himawari Japan’s activities include distributing historical documents in English to local schools when needed. We help Japanese children and parents with problems at public schools. We can also assist Japanese parents reporting any anti-Japanese harassment to the Japanese Consulate in New York and in some cases to the Japanese Foreign Ministry.
At present, we are working with Japanese historians and researchers from various institutions by hosting lectures on relevant historical issues. We intend to do our best to explain true Japanese history, particularly about the comfort women issue, with the hope of resolving the problem someday.
President of Himawari JAPAN
●Focusing historical issue from the overseas point of view chapter 2
WHAT WERE THE COMFORT WOMEN?
Then, what were the Comfort Women? This issue is discussed in detail by Historian Ikuhiko Hata in his book published in 1999, The Comfort Women and the Sex in the Battlefields. The Imperial Armed Forces of Japan established “Comfort Stations” in which Comfort Women worked in Shanghai in 1932. At that time, as reactions to the Manchurian incident, the Chinese troops attacked the small Japanese Naval brigade in January. Immediately Japan dispatched Army troops to Shanghai. The Japanese side successfully repelled the opposing troops, made a ceasefire agreement in March, and the Army troops went back home in May. However, during their stay, many raping incidents of local girls were reported. Thus, staff officers of the dispatched troops initiated a request to Governor of Nagasaki Prefecture to send a group of female entertainers. As a result, the raping cases vanished.
The Comfort Stations established lasted only for two months because the troops went home soon after. But, the scheme of the Comfort Stations and Comfort Women established in Shanghai had been maintained ever since then. The principal components of the scheme were: (1) Comfort Stations should be prepared and managed by private entities according to the rules set by the Armed Forces. (2) The facilities could be used only by military and military-related persons. (3)There should be one holiday every month. (4)Those who obtained license to operate must present to the Military Police the name, nationality, the date of birth, resume, and photo of each female worker called Comfort Woman. (5)Once every week Military doctor would review the health of each worker , and those workers who were diagnosed to be ill were not allowed to work. (6)Condoms and disinfectants should be used. (7)Working hours should be from 10AM through 6 PM, and 7PM through 10PM. (8)The fee should range from 1 yen through 1.50 yen. (9)Workers should not be allowed to go out of the permitted zone without a permit. (10)The facility managers would be deprived of the permit if they did not follow the rules on the division of income between the manager and the workers. In other words, the managers of Comfort Stations were placed under strict supervision by the Military.
From the above description, it is known that this system of Comfort Women was for protecting local women and girls from sexual violence and for protecting soldiers and women from sexually transmitted diseases. This was a rare case in which military forces had adopted an organized policy on the sexual pressure of service persons. Behind this policy was a publicly accepted system of prostitution in Japan.
It is said from the ancient times that prostitution is the oldest profession of women. In modern times, for preventing the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, prostitution was granted an official status when the workers were registered in France and other places during the 19th century. In Japan as well, the registration system of public prostitution requiring parental permission was started toward the end of the 19th century. Workers were allowed to quit the job. The Comfort Women of Japan were established in this environment.
When the Pacific War was started in 1941, the Japanese military troops went to not only in China, but also to several countries in Southeast Asia. Accordingly, the number of Comfort Women increased. They were recruited not only within Japan proper but also in Korea and Taiwan which were parts of Japan. Some of women from China, Indonesia, Philippines had been added. The situation of Comfort Women at that time has been reported in the United States Office of War Information Psychological Warfare Team’s report NO. 49. This report is based on interviews with 20 Korean Comfort Women who were captured in Burma. The report which was written in 1944 presents the following:
Recruiting: They were recruited by Japanese managers in 1942, with a promise of high income. The exact nature of work was not explained.
Daily Life: Each woman was given a room in which she lived and took customers. Meals were provided by the Japanese couple who managed the Comfort Station and paid for by the Comfort Women. As they had a lot of money, they had a luxurious life. As they received periodic health checks, their heath conditions were good.
Work Conditions: As the number of Comfort Women was small relative to the demand, they had to keep service time strictly. A soldier was served up to 30 minutes, and an officer up to 40 minutes. They worked from 10AM through 12 AM, and had Wednesdays off duty, on which they received health checks. Comfort Women requested customers to use condoms and were careful in heath matters.
Remuneration: Generally, the managers took a half to 55% of the gross income, and the rest went to the Comfort Women. Each Comfort Woman took roughly 750 yen per month. The salary of a freshman soldier was 7.50 yen and sergeant 25 yen per month. Their income was exceptional.
Relationship with Japanese Soldiers: Generally the soldiers were kind to them, having parties together, and some requesting marriage. There are some cases of actual marriage.
Then, this report concluded that the Comfort Women were nothing more than prostitutes.
Koichi Mera, Ph. D.
President, GAHT-US Corporation